Lesión dural asociada a fracturas de charnela toracolumbar y lumbares con compromiso del muro posterior. Relación con las variables del sistema de clasificación AOSpine. [Thecal sac injury secondary to burst fractures of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine, and its association with the AOSpine Classification System variables].

Guillermo Alejandro Ricciardi, Ignacio Gabriel Garfinkel, Gabriel Genaro Carrioli, Daniel Oscar Ricciardi

Resumen


Introducción: Las lesiones del saco dural con atrapamiento de la cauda equina entre los fragmentos óseos pueden estar asociadas con fracturas toracolumbares.

Objetivo: Realizar un análisis retrospectivo de las variables clínico-radiográficas y el sistema de clasificación AOSpine y la posibilidad de lesión dural asociada en una serie de fracturas toracolumbares por estallido, tratadas en nuestro Centro.

Materiales y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional de una serie de pacientes con fracturas toracolumbares con compromiso del muro posterior operados en nuestra institución, entre enero de 2012 y diciembre de 2017.


Resultados: Se incluyeron 46 pacientes, 16 casos con lesión del saco dural asociada. Las variables porcentaje de ocupación del canal, distancia interpedicular, ángulo del fragmento retropulsado y déficit neurológico asociado mostraron diferencias estadísticamente
significativas según la comparación en función de la presencia o ausencia de lesión dural (p = 0,046, p = 0,007, p = 0,046 y p = 0,004, respectivamente).

Conclusiones: Según nuestros resultados, la lesión dural traumática podría ser contemplada en la planificación del tratamiento de fracturas toracolumbares ante fragmentos voluminosos del muro posterior con ángulo agudo, compromiso severo del canal raquídeo, distancia interpedicular elevada y daño neurológico asociado, tal como se propone en la bibliografía.

 

Abstract


Introduction: Fractures of the thoracolumbar spine can trigger thecal sac injuries due to the impingement of the cauda equina between bone fragments.

Objective: To carry out a retrospective analysis of clinical and radiological variables, the AOSpine Classification System and the possibility of secondary thecal sac injury in a series of thoracolumbar burst fractures treated at our center.


Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational study of a series of patients with thoracolumbar fractures with compromise of the posterior vertebral body wall, who underwent surgery at our center between January 2012 and December 2017.

Results: Forty-six patients were included, 16 of which had secondary thecal sac injury. The differences in the variables—percentage of spinal canal involvement, interpedicular distance, angle of the retropulsed fragment, neurological deficit and type C fractures—were statistically significant according to the comparison made with the presence or absence of thecal sac injury (p=0.046, p=0.007, p=0.046, p=0.004, p=0,001 respectively).

Conclusions: This study suggests that traumatic thecal sac injury could be suspected
when managing burst fractures with prominent fragments in the posterior vertebral body wall, acute angle of the retropulsed fragment, severe compression of the spinal canal, wide interpedicular distance, neurological deficit and fracture displacement (fracture
type C according to the AOSpine Classification System).


Palabras clave


fractura toracolumbar; lesión dural; planificación preoperatoria. Thoracolumbar fractures; thecal sac injury; preoperative planning.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15417/issn.1852-7434.2019.84.3.926

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Registro de la Propiedad Intelectual Nº 22171081 (en línea).

ISSN 1852-7434 (en línea).

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