Osteotomía de la tuberosidad anterior de la tibia en adolescentes y adultos jóvenes: resultados funcionales y complicaciones. [Anterior tibial tubercle osteotomy in adolescents and young adults: functional results and complications]

Julio Javier Masquijo, Marcio Esteban Bordón, Mauro Minig, Aidee Vázquez Aguilar, Armando Torres-Gómez, Guillermo José Allende

Resumen


Introducción: La osteotomía de la tuberosidad anterior de la tibia (O-TAT) es una técnica quirúrgica que permite restablecer la alineación distal de la rótula en pacientes esqueléticamente maduros. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar los resultados
funcionales y analizar factores que influyeron en el desarrollo de complicaciones.

Materiales y Métodos: Se analizaron retrospectivamente pacientes con O-TAT tratados entre 2008 y 2016. Se documentaron datos demográficos y clínicos. Los resultados fueron
evaluados según las escalas de Kujala y Tegner-Lysholm, y las complicaciones, con una adaptación de la clasificación de Clavien-Dindo.

Resultados: Se analizaron 33 O-TAT en 29 pacientes (17 mujeres). Mediana de la edad: 18 años (RIC 2, mín.-máx. 14-39). Mediana de seguimiento: 49 meses (RIC 2, mín.-máx. 12-115). Mejoría en las escalas de Kujala y Tegner-Lysholm de 61 y 61,5 a 94 y 92,3, respectivamente (p = 0,001). La mediana de tiempo de consolidación fue de 8 semanas. Hubo 9 complicaciones (27%): 1 grado II (infección superficial) y 8 grado III (artrofibrosis, fracturas de tibia y fracturas de TAT, n = 2). La tasa de complicaciones fue más alta en los pacientes sometidos a desinserción de la TAT (51,5% vs. 11,1%, p = 0,029).

Conclusiones: La O-TAT representa una técnica eficaz para tratar diversas patologías de la articulación patelofemoral en adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. Hubo complicaciones en un alto porcentaje de los procedimientos, sin que esto afectara el resultado final. El riesgo de complicaciones fue mayor en las osteotomías que requirieron desinserción de la TAT y la reconstrucción ligamentaria.

 

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO) is a surgical approach that allows for the restoration of distal patellar alignment in skeletally mature patients. The objectives of this study were to evaluate functional results and to analyze the risk factors associated with complications.

 

Methods: We carried out a retrospective analysis of patients subjected to a TTO between 2008 and 2016 and documented demographic and clinical data. Results were evaluated according to the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale and the Tegner-Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale. Complications were evaluated with a modified Clavien-Dindo Classification of Surgical Complications.

 

Results: We evaluated 33 TTOs in 29 patients (17 women) with a median age of 18 years (IQR 2, range: 14-39) and a median follow-up time of 49 months (IQR 2, range: 12-115). The Kujala and the Tegner-Lysholm scoring improved from 61 and 61.5 to 94 and 92.3, respectively (p=0.001). Union was achieved at a median of 8 weeks. There were 9 complications (27%): a grade II complication (superficial infection) and 8 grade III complications (arthrofibrosis, tibial fractures, and anterior tibial tubercle fractures). Osteotomies in which the tibial tubercle was completely detached had a significantly higher rate of complications (51.5% vs. 11.1%, p=0.029).

 

Conclusions: TTO represents an effective approach for the treatment of several conditions of the patellofemoral joint in adolescents and young adults. In our series, a high percentage of the procedures presented complications, although they did not affect the final result. Osteotomies that involve complete detachment of the tubercle and those associated with ligament reconstruction have an increased risk of complications.

 


Palabras clave


Patelofemoral; inestabilidad; dolor; osteotomía; adolescentes; adultos jóvenes; Patellofemoral instability; pain; osteotomy; adolescents; young adults.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15417/issn.1852-7434.2019.84.1.815

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Registro de la Propiedad Intelectual Nº 22171081 (en línea).

ISSN 1852-7434 (en línea).

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